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Carbohydrates

Simple Sugar

Sources

Function

Monosaccharides

Milk, honey, figs, beans, sugar beets, fruit Requires no digestion and can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Is the immediate source of energy for cellular respiration.
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Sugar alcohol

Hard candies, cookies, chewing gums, soft drinks, throat lozenges, fruits and berries. Is made commercially by hydrogenation of glucose and is absorbed very slowly into the bloodstream.
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Alcohol and ethanol

Maize, sorghum, potatoes, wheat, sugar-cane, grapes. Ethanol does not require digestion and is directly absorbed through the gastrointestinal track. Alcohol and ethanol are formed by the fermentation of glucose by the enzyme in yeast, and although it contains very little nutritional value, it may represent a large part of the energy intake of individuals ingesting large amounts of alcohol.
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Disaccharides

Sucrose in cane sugar, maltose in malt sugar and lactose in milk sugar. Disaccharides are sugars containing two hexose units, such as sucrose in cane sugar, maltose in malt sugar and lactose in milk sugar.
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Trisaccharides

Cottonseed meal, sugar beets, and molasses. Trisaccharides are sugars containing three hexoses.
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Complex Carbohydrates

Sources

Function

Dextrin

Baked goods, candy, gravies, pie fillings, poultry, puddings, and soups. Dextrin occurs as an intermediate product of starch hydrolysis and is achieved by either enzymatic action or by cooking. It is used as a diluting agent for pills and capsules, as well as a thickener in creams and foam stabilizer in beer.
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Starch

White potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, wheat, seeds, fruits, tapioca, rice. Uses as thickener, water binder, emulsion stabilizer and gelling agent. Also often used as an inherent natural ingredient but it is also added for its functionality.
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Cellulose

Cotton fiber, wood, paper. Used as an anticake agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, dispersing agent, thickener, and gelling agent but these are generally subsidiary to its most important use of holding on to water.
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Methylcellulose

Imitation syrups, salad dressings, fruits, vegetables, seeds, legumes, dried peas, beans, lentils, split peas, red beans, pinto beans, barley, oats, oat bran, rye, wheat bran, brown rice, whole grains. Methylcellulose is part of the group "complex carbohydrates" and can absorb large quantities of water.
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Glycogen

    Glycogen is a quick storage vehicle for the body to keep large amounts of glucose when it is not needed by the body.
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Polysaccharides

Apple cider vinegar, in the core and albedo of lemons. Are used for storage of potential energy.
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Fiber

Sources

Function

Fiber

Fresh fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, whole grains, potatoes, beans, lentils, legumes, oatmeal, oatbran, dried peas, apples, pears, strawberries, blueberries, whole wheat breads, barley, couscous, brown rice, bulgur, whole-grain breakfast cereals, wheat bran, carrots, cucumbers, zucchini, celery, tomatoes. Reduces the risk of developing various conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, diverticular disease, and constipation. Helps prevent putrefaction of food in the intestinal, carcinogens forming in the body and running less risk of infection.
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